Adjusted net savings, including particulate emission damage (% of GNI)

Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage.

Source: World Bank staff estimates. The conceptual underpinnings of the savings measure appear in Hamilton and Clemens' "Genuine Savings Rates in Developing Countries" (1999).

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